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Natural Environment

The Georges River flows through a very varied landscape from the almost fully urbanised lower coastal reaches through to the steep sided heavily wooded upper reaches near Appin. Vegetation communities in the catchment are primarily Georges River and rock Padstow Heightsinfluenced by the distribution of shale (Cumberland Plain) and sandstone (Woronora Plateau) geologies. Many of these communities have been listed under the NSW Threatened Species Act (1995), particularly those communities located on the Cumberland Plain. The vegetation can be grouped into the following catagories:

  • Shale communities
  • Shale/sandstone transitional communities
  • Communities occurring on Tertiary Alluvium
  • Riparian communities
  • Sandstone communities
Click here to see our gallery of maps, including Geology, Land Use and Elevation in the Georges River.


These different flora associations provide a wide range of habitats for native animals. There are 454 species of fauna (both aquatic and terrestrial) recorded within the Georges River Catchment, many of which have been listed under the NSW Threatened Species Act (1995). The diversity and richness of fauna varies considerably from the coastal areas, to the urban fringes, to the relative wilderness of some of the inland areas of the catchment.

For more information on the terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity of the Georges River visit The NSW Planning & Environment website.

There are many impacts on the natural environment of the Georges River Catchment:Mill Creek bushland

  • Urban encroachment
  • Pest animals
  • Weed invasion
  • Clearing
  • Mining
  • Stormwater pollution
  • Litter

Inappropriate recreational activities (eg. 4WD's, trail bikes, illegal fishing activities, etc).

Visit our education pages for information on how you can reduce your impact on the river and its catchment.

Climate change also poses a risk to the River and it's catchment with changes to sea levels, altered rainfall patterns, and warmer temperatures influencing the catchment's biodiversity. For more information on Climate Change and potential impacts check out the links below: